WELL TYPES

 

What is a Water well?

Drilled wells: Drilled wells are constructed by either cable tool (percussion) or rotary-drilling machines. Drilled wells that penetrate unconsolidated material require installation of casing and a screen to prevent inflow of sediment and collapse. They can be drilled more than 1,000 feet deep. The space around the casing must be sealed with grouting material of either neat cement or bentonite clay to prevent contamination by water draining from the surface downward around the outside of the casing.

A drilled well consists of a hole bored into the ground, with the upper part being lined with casing. The casing prevents the collapse of the borehole walls and (grout seal) prevents surface or subsurface contaminants from entering the water supply. The casing also provides a housing for a pumping mechanism and for the pipe that moves water from the pump to the surface.

Various conditions make it impossible to guarantee that a well contractor will find an adequate supply of groundwater at your location. For example, the geology in an area may be such that groundwater is not available at your site even though a neighbor’s well is a good producer. It is not advisable to build your home until you know you have an adequate water supply on your building site. Depending on the locale, this may mean drilling and testing a well prior to initiating construction of the house.

Residential Wells

A private water supply well to serve an individual lot. An average household uses approximately 200-400 gallons of water per day, 5 gallons per minute is  typically an adequate amount for daily residential consumption. These are the most common wells found in rural Manitoba.


Cottage Wells

These well water systems are used to connect to deep water supplies, sometimes over 200’ in depth. They cost more to construct but generally provide a much more reliable and safe supply of drinking water. Water is usually pumped from the well by a submersible pump.

Granite Wells

For the larger part of Manitoba, most granite wells are located in the Whiteshell area which generally are used for cottages.

Most granite bedrock contains few cracks at depths normally reached by wells. That's why it's often difficult to get alot of water from a granite well. The few water-bearing cracks present in granite usually occur in the first 200 feet.

Sometime hydrofracturing is required to obtain a higher yield, in which large volumes of water are injected into a drillhole under thousands of pounds of pressure to open water-bearing cracks in bedrock.

Many drillers recommend extending the bedrock drillhole to great depths for low-yielding wells because the drillhole can act as a water storage reservoir. for example:A six-inch diameter drillhole or casing can hold one-and-one-half gallons of water for every foot of depth. If your new well is deep, it may store a large volume of water even if the well becomes recharged with groundwater very slowly. A six-inch diameter well containing 200 feet of standing water could store 300 gallons of water.

Families who use water prudently can get by with a well yielding one gallon a minute or less if the well has enough depth to provide storage capacity.

Industrial Wells


Probably every manufactured product uses water during some part of the production process. Industrial water use includes water used for such purposes as fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs within the manufacturing facility. Some industries that use large amounts of water produce such commodities as food, paper, chemicals, refined petroleum, or primary metals.

Commercial Wells


Whether your business requires 1/2 gpm (gallon per minute) or 500 gpm or more, commercial use wells are any well that is used for the production and/or operation of any commercial business. Commercial wells provide water for, but not limited for the following examples:

  • large capacity washing facilities such as automotive car washes
  • bottling facilities
  • fertilizer plants
  • feed mills
  • apartment complex heating & cooling

Dewatering wells

Temporary wells which are used to pull water from an area which needs to be de-watered for specific purposes, ie.

  • installation of an underground parking lot.
  • foundation concrete for basements & below ground structures
  • installation or replacement/repair tasks on retention reservoirs


Geothermal Wells

With geothermal heating and cooling, liquid is carried through a sealed underground system of pipes. With the help of a geothermal unit, the liquid "moves" heat into, or out of, your home or commercial building.

  • Supply Wells-Open Loop
  • Return Wells-Open Loop
  • Vertical loop-Closed Loop

 
Observation Wells


Some wells are dug solely to study water quality or quantity: these are called monitoring wells or observation wells

Livestock Wells


Water wells used exclusively for livestock purposes such as watering, cleaning, barn supply etc. These wells are stand alone for the purpose of livestock. A separate, residential well is used for domestic purposes if applicable to the property.